Operator hotels and large data centers provide convenient locations for the telecommunications and network industries to interconnect with other telecommunications companies at the physical level. This is a neutral facility that provides a high density of available operators. As global telecommunications continue to develop toward packet networks and services, Internet protocol exchange and interconnection points will bring greater value to the global telecommunications community.
Large networks require small networks and content providers to compensate for the use of their infrastructure, while the Internet community usually requires free access to the infrastructure used (net neutrality) or requires large infrastructure networks to provide contracts. For small companies looking to compete with established utilities such as AT&T, Verizon, and BellSouth, operator hotels are crucial.
Regulations such as HR 5252 do not have specific network neutrality protection measures, and will push second-tier network providers to use wireless and physical cables to develop parallel infrastructures, in addition to stronger peer relationships, which can bypass large-scale network infrastructure Architecture. Operator hotels allow a neutral interconnection environment to bypass large wholesale network infrastructure or transit, thereby supporting stronger peer relationships between smaller networks and content providers.
Internet hierarchical structure
In the past 15 years or so, the Internet has been divided into three main levels:
• Layer 1-backbone carrier. These Tier 1 operators are facility-based and carry the entire Internet routing table. Generally recognized Tier 1 Internet network providers include Verizon (formerly UUNET/MCI Internet), Sprint, AT&T, and Cable&Wireless.
• Layer 2-regional and secondary Internet networks. It is also usually facility-based, but still relies on one of the first layers for some routing and transmission. This includes cable television networks, CLEC and international second-tier operators such as France Telecom’s open bus and Level 3.
• Layer 3-access network and content service provider network.
Peer-to-peer is a concept that enables networks to reach mutual agreement so that traffic can be directly transmitted between their networks without using higher-layer networks for this. Paid peer-to-peer is how layer 2 and layer 1 networks charge for smaller networks to access their backbone network or allow subscribers of their network to access the Internet in other parts of the world.
Net neutrality assumes that users will be able to control the types of content or applications they generate or access, regardless of service level or quality of service. Therefore, whether you are paying for a dedicated, all-you-can-eat port or a usage-based billing model, all you pay for is the ability to send and receive data packets at the rate agreed with your contract. “Upstream” Tier 2 or Tier 1 network providers.
The current regulations (HR5252) will allow Tier 2 and Tier 1 operators to have greater control over the content and applications generated by Tier 3 networks and content/application providers, but will also restrict end users Possibly the way to use web applications. A widely touted example is Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP). Layer 1 and Layer 2 networks claim that VoIP requires higher quality of service, and therefore impose unreasonable requirements on the backbone network. They further argued that content service providers such as Google and Yahoo can provide users with their content without having to pay or pay to the backbone network provider used as the transmission network.
The babble that first appeared in HR5252 included discussions about net neutrality. Net neutrality is the principle that “Internet users should control which content they view and which applications they use on the Internet.” From the beginning, the Internet has been operating under the principle of neutrality of network service providers, promoting technological innovation, the development of online industries, and the creation of a truly global community and market.
The Internet is based on open minds, and is only occasionally challenged by restrictive governments that believe it is necessary to restrict citizens’ freedom to access and view open information. With the help of the IPv6 protocol, the government will continue to find difficulties in Internet control, as IPSEC will further utilize its ability to restrict or intercept data.
Operator hotel and net neutrality support
Carrier Hotel is essentially a real estate business. Carrier hotels make money by renting or licensing floor space, uninterrupted power supply, cooling and interconnection. The more interconnections and networks there are in an asset, the more important the asset is to the telecommunications and network provider community. The reasoning is very simple. If you are in an operator hotel, you can usually interconnect with certain networks or operators by using a local cross-connect, and in some cases, you can also use a “patch cord” cable. If you are a data center that is geographically separated from the main carrier hotel (such as Wilshire One, 60 Hudson, Westin Building or Telehouse), or a tenant in a data center operated by an existing carrier, you are interconnected with other carriers The cost of network providers and operators will be greatly increased.
A carrier hotel like One Wilshire may have more than 300 carriers and service providers as tenants in a building. Most of these tenants will be directly in a “meeting” room operated by the building, allowing all carriers to easily enter each other because everyone is nearby.
Operator hotels are locations where Layer 3 and Layer 2 networks and content and application providers can directly interconnect. This allows those networks to be “peer-to-peer” without the need to send traffic through transit or large 2/1 operators. In many cases, smaller operators and content or application providers can be equal, without the need for money to transfer funds between networks. This is important in situations where content providers may send large amounts of traffic to users on small networks. Both the content provider and the layer 3 network are likely to have reciprocal arrangements with the upstream network, causing the company and its users to pay for basically the same traffic.
The operator hotel may also provide other utilities or options for level 2 and level 3 network interconnection. Both One Wilshire and 60 Hudson run utility packet switching, allowing packet networks (Internet and Internet content/applications) to be interconnected via Internet switching. Internet exchanges (such as One Wilshire’s Any2 exchange) allow network and content providers to connect to the exchange using a single high-speed connection, and then connect with any or all other exchange participants without physical wiring or port consumption.
Bypass and packet switching
The Internet is a rich environment that supports the continuous development of advanced technologies, products and services that support communications. Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP), interactive entertainment (such as multi-user games) and on-demand rich media (video) have become three areas of rapid development and growth. All three require high-performance access to end users, and all three have the potential to generate large amounts of network traffic.
In our broadband access world, most end users connect to their network through high-capacity lines, whether it is ADSL, Internet on CATV lines or wireless. For access networks, it is usually not necessary to provide a large amount of traffic to the end user. On the contrary, due to the high operating cost of connecting to an upstream network provider, paying for a large amount of traffic or higher bandwidth ports may become a factor. Paid peer-to-peer relationship.
In order to ensure a positive end-user experience, which is obviously a necessary condition for customer retention, access networks and content providers need to ensure that their users have no “bottlenecks” or traffic congestion points between interactive users or content distribution endpoints.
Packets will flow
The Internet was originally designed as a highly survivable network, allowing packets to be routed around blocks and failure points in any network. This ability to bypass obstacles and points of failure has incredible parallelism in the dynamics of Internet-related business relationships.
Whenever the architecture or business model becomes too strict, alternative models will be developed or appear. The Internet community essentially wants to be neutral, and has historically found ways to bypass restrictive networks and legal barriers, so that users can communicate freely with each other without being affected by network architecture, policies, security, and surveillance control.
Like Internet packets, the Internet community will look for methods among Method 1 and facility-based operators to try to restrict or restrict applications and services on the public Internet.
VoIP and the end of the telephone network
VoIP has received close attention from the government, telecommunications industry, and especially the end user community. Pricing, call quality, and ease of use are all important topics, as are the future regulations and security risks of sending calls over packet networks.
VoIP not only has physical network performance issues, but also has to look forward to the long-term problems of future convergence or integration of video, conferencing, application sharing, and networks. The world today runs on a numbering system called E.164. E.164 is a recommendation of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) for international and local telephone number systems. With the help of VoIP, the E.164 numbering plan is gradually being replaced by a network status indicator, which only “proxy” your desired identity on the telephone or packet network and announce that you can communicate interactively or non-interactively.
Today, the user’s instant messaging identity is the best example of an active network status indicator, but even the IM engine is rapidly adding interactive voice modules to its interface. The voice module can be directly connected to the IM interface, or it can be “proxy” through the status directory to the interface.
The recent “agent” service is called ENUM. The ENUM registry converts between E.164 phone numbers and network IP addresses or identities. In the neutral data packet exchange, the ENUM registration center allows non-wholesale or backbone VoIP operators to query the database of other VoIP phone numbers and pass VoIP calls to other network IP<->IP, bypassing any traditional forwarding phone operator when completing or terminating a “call”. If the VoIP operator has a peer-to-peer agreement, this will greatly reduce the amount that smaller VoIP operators must pay to the call forwarding provider when initiating or terminating telephone services, allowing the operator to bypass the telephone network completely for end-to-end End VoIP call.
As all networks continue to migrate to packet telephony, even ENUM will gradually be phased out. However, as a utility program available in neutral packet switching, it can help many small networks save enough operating expenses to make their lifetime longer.
Cache companies have existed for several years, and the most famous company (Akamai) is located in almost every major data center. The reason is simple-keep your content as close to the user as possible and the user will get the best experience. Operator hotels that support packet switching fully support content distribution. A company like Limelight can distribute mass media on demand, and it finds a carrier hotel attractive because it allows the media to bypass the need for intermediate or transit networks. The performance of the end user depends entirely on the performance of the access network.
If HR5252 cannot protect network neutrality, then this problem will become more serious. Both the access network and content owners will incur additional service quality or bulk charges for the delivery of high-bandwidth applications and content (such as VOD or streaming media). In the data packet exchange, the content provider can directly connect to all participants in the exchange, and in most cases, the content can be delivered directly through the exchange without paying for peer-to-peer.
Internet service provider peering
The ultimate benefit that operator hotels, especially those that operate neutral Internet or data packet exchange, can provide is to communicate with each other in their ISP communities. In some cases, the dynamics of the Internet will justify sending most of the traffic through a single layer 2 or layer 1 network provider. You may enjoy the best performance at the best price. However, with the continued growth of ISPs, the burden of paying transfer or usage fees to upstream network providers may justify the direct peer-to-peer relationship.
Operator hotels can easily accommodate physical interconnection and packet switching peer-to-peer networks. If you want to have a peer-to-peer interconnection between a large number of peers, and the traffic is not too high, it is best to perform packet switching. As traffic to a single network increases, switching traffic can be shifted to a dedicated physical cross-connect.
Operator hotels and large neutral data centers are convenient locations for all levels of Internet networks, content providers and application providers. Out of concerns about the lack of effective neutral language in HR 5252, many Tier 2, Tier 3 and content/application providers are seeking to carry hotels and neutral Internet exchanges to bypass the Tier 1 transition. Bypass will enable smaller network and content providers to have better network and application performance in participating networks, and reduce operating expenses based on usage-based billing or port fees.